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Gingivitis is the mildest form of periodontal disease.
It causes the gums to become red, swollen, and bleed easily.
There is usually little or no discomfort at this stage.
Gingivitis is often caused by inadequate oral hygiene. Gingivitis is reversible with professional treatment and good oral home care.
Factors that may contribute to gingivitis include, diabetes, smoking, aging, genetic predisposition, systemic diseases and conditions, stress, inadequate nutrition, puberty, hormonal fluctuations, pregnancy, substance abuse, HIV infection, and certain medication use.
While in some sites or individuals gingivitis never progresses to periodontitis, data indicates that periodontitis is always preceded by gingivitis.
• The American Academy of Periodontology. Proceedings of the World Workshop in Clinical Periodontics. Chicago:The American Academy of Periodontology; 1989:I/23-I/24.
• Ammons, WF; Schectman, LR; Page, RC (1972). “Host tissue response in chronic periodontal disease. 1. The normal periodontium and clinical manifestations of dental and periodontal disease in the marmoset”. Journal of periodontal research 7 (2): 131–43. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0765.1972.tb00638.x. PMID 4272039.
• Page, RC; Schroeder, HE (1976). “Pathogenesis of inflammatory periodontal disease. A summary of current work”. Laboratory investigation; a journal of technical methods and pathology 34 (3): 235–49. PMID 765622.
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